Socio-economic assessment of refugees in Rwanda's Gihembe, Kigeme and Kiziba camps - 2016
1-2-3 Survey, phase 3 [hh/123-3]
UNHCR conducts socio-economic assessments of persons-of-concern (i.e. refugees, asylum-seekers, IDPs, etc.) in a variety of countries in order to inform and improve its programming with the goal of promoting self-reliance. While these assessments are not fully standardized and are tailored to their specific country context, the quantitative surveys share strong similarities in their design and objectives, and are therefore considered a survey series for the purpose of microdata documentation/archiving.
There is a growing interest in the consequences of hosting refugees for local populations. Such consequences need not to be unfavorable and in many instances the presence of refugees results in direct and indirect benefits for host communities. This survey was conducted to examine the influence of Congolese refugees on host communities in Rwanda, with a focus on labor market activity and economic welfare. The survey covered three refugee camps as well as their surrounding host communities. Data was collected in May 2016 and covers 427 refugee households and 953 host households.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Household and individual
2.1: Edited, anonymous dataset for licensed distribution.
The scope of the quantitative data of this socio-economic assessment includes: - Household identification - Characteristics of household members (demographics, education/literacy, employment) - Migration and remittances - Consumption expenditure - Asset ownership - Sources of income - Subjective wellbeing - Coping strategies - Assistance - Access to services - Formal and social networks - Social perceptions
Livelihood & Social cohesion
Gihembe, Kigeme and Kiziba refugee camps, Rwanda
All refugees living in Gihembe, Kigeme and Kiziba refugee camps. UNHCR PPG: 1RWAC
Producers and sponsors
Maastricht School of Governance
The survey's objective was to deliver representative data of all refugees living in Gihembe, Kigeme and Kiziba refugee camps. The total population in the three camps at the time of the survey was estimated at around 8,500 refugee households. For the in-camp component of this survey a stratified, three-stage (i.e. clustered) sample design was applied. The three camps were considered sampling strata. First, seven "quarters" were randomly selected within a given camp; second, one village was randomly selected within each quarter; third, 20 households were randomly selected within each village from a registration list. The total sample size was 427 refugee households. NB: The original data collection also included 953 households from the neighbouring host community; however, purposive elements were introduced into the sample selection process for the host community to serve the particular research interest of the original study (market exclusion criteria and largest village in cell criteria). In consequence, the host population sample cannot be considered fully representative of the wider host population, hence these observations were removed from the public-release version of the dataset.
Deviations from the Sample Design
For Gihembe and Kigeme camps, the sample households were in fact re-visits from another survey carried out in the previous year. This earlier survey had applied a similar sampling strategy as described above, and the movement in and out of camps between the two surveys was limited, hence the effect of this deviation was considered to be minimal.
No weights were aplied during the initial data analysis. However, given that selection probailities differed across sampling strata, the public-release version of the data contains sampling weights calculated ex-post, which data users may wish to apply during further analysis.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
Data Collection Notes
Data was collected through computer-assisted face-to-face interviewing.
All questionaires are provided in section "external resources".
The dataset presented here has undergone light checking, cleaning and restructuring (data may still contain errors) as well as anonymization (includes removal of direct identifiers and sensitive variables, and grouping values of select variables). Moreover, households interviewed from host communities were removed.
No attempt will be made to identify respondents or microdata providers, and no use will be made of the identity of any person, facility or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to UNHCR, to allow evaluation of further use, apply further statistical disclosure control methods, impose further restrictions on access, or appropriately re-classify the data. No attempt will be made to create links between datasets provided by UNHCR, or between UNHCR data and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Disclaimer and copyrights
UNHCR does not warrant in any way the accuracy of the information and data contained in the datasets and shall not be held liable for any loss caused by reliance on the accuracy or reliability thereof.