Community lighting in Northern Uganda’s Rhino Camp refugee settlement survey - 2016
Located in rural northern Uganda, Rhino Camp is home to more than 80,000 refugees3 – mostly South Sudanese who fled since July 2016. Other Rhino Camp residents come from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Sudan, as well as the host Ugandan community. 74% of all heads of household are women,4 and Rhino Camp is one of a growing number of refugee settlements across nine UNHCR operations where solar street lamps are in use. Between April and June 2015 UNHCR installed some three dozen community lights in 50% of Rhino Camp’s 14 villages. As demand for community lighting far exceeded available funds, UNHCR worked with the refugee community and its partner the Danish Refugee Council to prioritize the strategic placement of lights within villages. The partners jointly selected locations where (1) refugees were prone to nighttime violence, theft or other safety risks, and (2) lights would promote constructive night-time activity.
Using a 72-question survey, researchers asked respondents what day- and night-time6 activities they and their children do, and whether they do these activities in lit or unlit locations. Researchers then asked respondents if they feared or had been victims of something bad while doing these activities. The phrase something bad is the English translation for the most commonly used expressions – in Nuer, Dinka, Bari, and Kiswahili – of being a victim of an aggressive act or encountering danger. Survey responses reveal that the bad experiences that respondents most commonly fear are sexual and physical violence, theft, verbal harassment, injury, and encounters with animals
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v2.1: Edited, anonymous dataset for licensed distribution.
1. Respondent demographic information
2. Household members
3. Sources of household lighting
4. Day-time respondent activities
5. Perceptions of fear during day-time activities
6. Night-time respondent activities
7. Perceptions of fear during night-time activities
8. Children’s night-time activities
9. Perceptions of night-time safety
Gender Based Violence
Housing, Land and Property
Access to Energy
Rhino Camp, Uganda
Four of Rhino Camp’s 14 villages: two unlit (Katiku and Siripi) and two lit (Ocea and Odobu).
Producers and sponsors
The Office of the Prime Minister (OPM) provided UNHCR a numbered list of the names of all heads of household in each village. To ensure a representative sample among these four villages, 15% of households across all villages was selected using a random number generator. The UNHCR research team conducted interviews in 171 households. (38% of selected households were not able to be found due to outdated registry lists, and 1% did not consent.) Among the 171 randomly selected households, researchers conducted 267 individual interviews: 86% of respondents were female and 39% were adolescents.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
A locally-recruited data entry clerk input survey data in to a database using CSPro software. Statisticians cleaned the data, exported it to spreadsheets and organized it into tables, using SAS and R data analysis software. The tables displayed frequency and percentage values for responses to each survey question, and statisticians created additional tables to disaggregate data by gender, village and age.
Using Google Earth software and GPS data, the UNHCR research team created a map that calculated the distance of each respondent’s home to each light in their village. Two epidemiologists supporting the assessment used the statistical program R to conduct hypothesis tests8 to determine if people living closer to lights are more likely, compared to those living farther, to 1) walk to lit areas at night and 2) feel safe at night. The lead researcher returned to Rhino Camp in November 2016 to present preliminary data to four groups of six to ten refugees who reside in the four surveyed villages. During these sessions, members of the research team showed participants the survey and explained the purpose of the research. The team also presented and described tables of survey data on the locations where respondents were most and least afraid at night.