Post-Distribution Monitoring of Cash-Based Intervention, February 2021
THE CBI Covid PDM Household Survey was conducted in Nepal from November, 2020 to February, 2021. In Nepal, UNHCR has supported the Covid-19 response in multiple sectors in 2020, such as Cash-Based Interventions. One of the main findings of the survey was that almost a third of the households answered that they were currently not able to meet basic needs of the households, even though alll of them had benefitted from interventions earlier.
UNHCR uses Post-Distribution Monitoring (PDM) as a mechanism to collect refugees' feedback on the quality, sufficiency, utilization and effectiveness of the assistance items they receive. The underlying principle behind the process is linked to accountability, as well as a commitment to improve the quality and relevance of support provided, and related services. UNHCR increasingly uses Cash-Based Interventions (CBIs) as a preferred modality for delivering assistance, offering greater dignity and choice to forcibly displaced and stateless persons in line with UNHCR's core protection mandate. In order to ensure that the cash assistance provided meets the intended programme objectives and that desired outcomes are achieved, UNHCR conducts regular post-distribution and outcome monitoring with a sample or all of refugee recipients.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v2.1: Edited, anonymous dataset for licensed distribution.
The household survey covers the following sections:
1. Household demographics
2. Receiving and spending the cash assistance (basic facts)
3. Risks and problems: Did people face problems with the CBI? Did the CBI put POCs at additional risk?
4. Markets and prices: Can POCs find what they need, and at a price they can afford, in the markets?
5. Expenditure: What did people spend the money on?
6. Outcomes: What changes is the cash assistance contributing to in POC households?
7. Longer-Term Outcomes: Has the cash assistance helped put POC on the pathway to sustainable solutions?
8. Accountability to Affected Persons: Is the CBI intervention accountable to persons of concern? (What preferences do people have over how assistance is delivered?)
Livelihood & Social cohesion
Domestic Needs/Household Support
The survey was conducted in Damak, Pathari-Sanischare and Kathmandu.
The total population spans all Bhutanese and urban households subject to the Cash-Based Intervention.
Producers and sponsors
The total number of beneficiaries of Cash-Based Interventions is 2523 Bhutanese and urban households. For this survey, a stratified random sample was planned, but a simple random sample was implemented, due to low response rates. The total sample size was 221 (177 Bhutanese households and 44 urban households).
Sample weights were calculated for each household as the total number of beneficiaries divided by the total sample size.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Telephone Interview [cati]
Data Collection Notes
The non-response rate was very high, because interviews were conducted via the phone and data collection had to be carried out over several months.
UNHCR (2021). Nepal: Post-Distribution Monitoring of Cash-Based Intervention, February 2021. Accessed from: https://microdata.unhcr.org.