Post-Distribution Monitoring of COVID-19 Cash-Based Intervention, September 2020
As a response to COVID-19, UNHCR has since the start of the pandemic launched multiple new cash grants and expanded existing programs. UNHCR's cash assistance complements governments' efforts by contributing with an additional safety net for vulnerable refugees and others left behind. UNHCR uses Post-Distribution Monitoring (PDM) as a mechanism to collect refugees' feedback on the quality, sufficiency, utilization and effectiveness of the assistance items they receive. In order to ensure that the cash assistance provided meets the intended programme objectives and that desired outcomes are achieved, UNHCR conducts regular post-distribution and outcome monitoring with a sample or all of the recipients.
The COVID-19 CBI PDM Household Survey was conducted in Malaysia between August to September 2021. In Malaysia, UNHCR provided urgent cash assistance to mitigate the socio-economic impacts of COVID-19, which hit especially urban refugees hard. Some 80 percent of the cash recipients experienced loss of income during the movement control order in Malaysia. Despite the overall positive impact of cash assistance, 80 percent of the households resorted to negative coping strategies to meet basic needs, highlighting that the unmet needs are vast despite assistance.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v2.1: Edited, anonymous dataset for licensed distribution.
The household survey covers the following sections:
1. Household demographics
2. Receiving and spending the cash assistance (basic facts)
3. Risks and problems: Did people face problems with the CBI? Did the CBI put POCs at additional risk?
4. Markets and prices: Can POCs find what they need, and at a price they can afford, in the markets?
5. Expenditure: What did people spend the money on?
6. Outcomes: What changes is the cash assistance contributing to in POC households?
7. Longer-Term Outcomes: Has the cash assistance helped put POC on the pathway to sustainable solutions?
8. Accountability to Affected Persons: Is the CBI intervention accountable to persons of concern? (What preferences do people have over how assistance is delivered?)
POC = Persons of Concern to UNHCR
Livelihood & Social cohesion
Domestic Needs/Household Support
The survey is conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Pahang, Penang and Selangor.
The total population spans all beneficiaries subject to the last four Cash-Based Intervention in 2020 in Malaysia.
Producers and sponsors
The survey's objective was to deliver data of all refugee households that were beneficiaries of the last four rounds of cash-based interventions implemented in 2020. The total number of households that received cash-based interventions in that period was 487 and every second household was selected randomly.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
UNHCR (2020). Malaysia: Post-Distribution Monitoring of COVID-19 Cash-Based Intervention, September 2020. Accessed from: https://microdata.unhcr.org.