Joint UNHCR/WFP Post Distribution Monitoring - September, 2021
Demographic and Health Survey [hh/dhs]
Until May 2021 all registered refugees in Rwanda received food assistance. Against the background of ever-limited resources and recognizing that the refugee population is not homogeneously vulnerable, in mid-2021 WFP and UNHCR initiated the shift to the targeted provision of food assistance based on needs.
A targeting strategy – developed by UNHCR and WFP with support from the Joint UNHCR-WFP Programme Excellence and Targeting Hub - was formulated with the following objectives:
- Identify vulnerable refugee households in need of humanitarian assistance and less vulnerable refugees with higher livelihood resilience who would benefit from livelihoods support;
- Ensure the greatest protection outcomes through strong community participation, communications with refugee communities and risk analysis to inform the approach.
This second JPDM has served to ensure that the corporate practice of post-distribution monitoring is fulfilled. Additionally, it assessed the extent to which the targeting approach has – over a period of five months between May and September 2021 – achieved the above objectives.
Overall vulnerability among refugee households – defined by livelihood resilience, economic capacity and food access - reduced over a period of nine months between December 2020 and September 2021
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v2.1: Edited, cleaned and anonymised data
Household: Demographics, food security, income generation and COVID-19 impact, expenditure and capacity to meet needs, vulnerability.
Livelihood and Social cohesion
Water Sanitation Hygiene
Six refugee camps across the country: Kigeme, Gihembe, Kiziba, Mahama, Mugombwa and Nyabiheke
All registered refugees in UNHCR register server, ProGres, in Rwanda.
Producers and sponsors
In line with the sampling strategy of the first JPDM in December 2020, the second JPDM aimed to provide statistically representative data and analysis on camp level for all six camps in Rwanda.
In addition, to better understand the vulnerability status of households receiving various assistance since the targeting started, the sampling of the 2nd JPDM was also designed to be representative at the assistance group level. Same as the first JPDM, the assessment team used the total number of ProGres Groups by the time the survey was designed (August 2021) as the most reliable proxy to the total number of households, hence the sample frame. The sample size was planned to reach (a minimum of) 2,400 households in total with 95% confidence level and 5% margin error while factoring a 15% non-response rate. The distribution of the households by camp and by eligibility group was proportional to the distribution of number of the total population in each stratification.
a household panel study
A panel component was incorporated in the 2nd JPDM. By sampling the households who were surveyed in the December’s 2020 JPDM and comparing their performances in key outcome indicators through a longitudinal analysis over a period of 5 months (May 2021 – September 2021). The assessment sheds light on the effectiveness of the targeting as other factors that may confound the interpretation of targeting impact such as refugees mobility, are controlled.
Among the sampled households of December 2020, those who remain registered/trackable in the camp and at the same time, have held the same eligibility group status since targeting started were sampled for the survey. In other words, among the total sample, the panel households were interviewed and the additional number of households needed to reach the overall sample plan was added from random sampling from ProGres
Weights have been calculated as the total households per group per location/selected households per target group per location
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
UNHCR, WFP (2021). Rwanda: Joint UNHCR/WFP Post Distribution Monitoring - September, 2021. Accessed from: https://microdata.unhcr.org