The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Round 4 (MICS4) is the forth round of MICS surveys, previously conducted around 1995 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), and 2005-2007 (MICS3). MICS was originally developed to support countries measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of goals that emerged from the 1990 World Summit for Children.
The fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4) is scheduled for 2009-2011 and survey results are expected to be available from 2010 onwards. MICS4 data allow countries to better monitor progress toward national goals and global commitments, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the target year 2015 approaches.
Information on more than 20 of the MDG indicators is being collected through MICS4, offering one of the largest single sources of data for MDG monitoring. MICS4 continues to address emerging issues and new areas of interest, with validated, standard methodologies in collecting relevant data. It also helps countries capture rapid changes in key indicators.
The Palestinian Family Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2010 by the Palestinians Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS), with UNICEF’s and UNPA’s financial and technical support. The Palestinian Family Survey is a national household survey programme developed by PCBS based on international standard demographic health surveys as well as MICS surveys. The Palestinian Family Survey was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). The survey provides up to date information on the health, economic, and social situation of women and children; in addition to providing information on characteristics of the family in which each woman and child live as well as the main indicators about the categories of youth and elderly. This offers a study, analysis, and understanding of the actual indicators and their relationship with demographic, social, economic, and environmental variables. The survey also measures the major indicators which allows countries to monitor their progress towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) besides measuring the level of fulfilling other internationally agreed upon commitments; in addition to enabling policy and decision makers, and intervention programs to evaluate the plans and programs, amend them, and locate the areas of intervention based on the results. The carry out of the survey also aims at updating the databases on women and children as well as building and enhancing the technical staff capabilities of carrying out surveys and analyzing data out of them. The Palestinian Family survey conducted in 2010 was led by a technical team from the Palestinians Central Bureau of Statistics, UNICEF, and UNFPA, and Ministry of Health.
The Palestinian Family Survey was conducted for a representative sample of the State of Palestine. The survey was designed as a multi- stage cluster covering all the State of Palestine including two geographic areas; The West Bank which included 11 governorates: (Jenin, Tubas, Tulkarm, Qalqiliya, Nablus, Ramallah & Al-Bireh, Jerusalem, Jericho & Al-Aghwar, Bethlehem, Hebron) and the Gaza Strip which include governorates (Gaza, Khan Yunis, Rafah, Deir El Balah and North Gaza). Of the 15,355 households selected in the sample, results showed that the number of occupied households were 14,817 of which 13,629 households were successfully interviewed during the survey, giving a response rate of 92 percent. There were 13,982 women in the 15-49 age group of which a total of 11,173 eligible women were successfully interviewed, achieving a response rate of 80 percent. In addition, 8,024 children were identified in the household questionnaire for whom a total of 7,900 mothers or child caretakers were interviewed. The total response rates of individual interviews are calculated as 73 percent of eligible women and 90 percent with children under 5 respectively. The total households interviewed reached (13,629) households, which included 81,510 individuals members who were listed. Of these, 41,379 were males and 40,131 were females, yielding a sex ratio of 103 males per hundred females.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- v01: Edited, anonymous datasets for public distribution.
The scope of the Palestinian Family Survey 2010 includes:
- Household: Household Listing Form, Education, Water and Sanitation, Household Characteristics, Child Labour, Child Discipline, Salt Iodization, Women’s health aged 15-54 years irrespective of marital status, HIV/AIDS, and General health issues;
- Women: Women’s Background, marriage and education, Child Mortality with Birth History, Desire for Last Birth, Maternal and Newborn Health,Illness Symptoms and Postpartum care, Chronic diseases and ill health due to childbirth, Contraception, Unmet Need, and Attitudes towards reproduction;
- Children: Age, Birth Registration, Breastfeeding, Immunization, Care of Illness, Early Childhood Development, and Anthropometry;
- Youth: Youth general characteristics, Youth knowledge and attitude regarding the use of contraceptives, Youth health, Youth knowledge of HIV/AIDS, Preparation for marriage and family, and Youth access to Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology;
- Elderly: Elderly social activities and relations, Elderly use of Time, and Health Status of elderly.
West Bank: Jenin, Tubas, Tulkarm, Qalqiliya, Nablus, Ramallah & Al-Bireh, Jerusalem, Jericho & Al-Aghwar, Bethlehem, Hebron
Gaza Strip: Gaza, Khan Yunis, Rafah, Deir El Balah and North Gaza
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged between 15-54 years, all children under 5 living in the household, all youth aged 15-29 years, and all elderly (60+ years old).
Producers and sponsors
United Nations Children’s Fund
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
United Nations Children’s Fund
Financial and technical support
United Natural Products Alliance
Financial and technical support
The primary objective of the sample design for the Palestinian Family Survey was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas, refugee camps and for the sixteen governorates (11 in the West Bank and 5 in the Gaza Strip). Urban and rural areas and the refugee camps in each of the sixteen governorates were defined as the sampling strata.
A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample.
The sampling frames used has been established in PCBS,and basically comprises the list of enumeration areas. (The enumeration area is a geographical area containing a number of buildings and housing units of about 120 housing units on average.)
The total frame consists of the following two parts:
1- West Bank and Gaza Sampling Frame: containing enumeration areas drawn up in 2007. In the West Bank: each enumeration area consists of a list of households with identification data to ascertain the address of individual households. In Gaza: each enumeration area contains a list of housing units with addresses to ascertain the address of individual households, plus identification data of the housing units.
2- Jerusalem Sampling Frame (J1): contains enumeration areas only, geographically divided with information about the total number of households in these areas. However, there is no detailed information about addresses inside enumeration areas and the size of the enumeration area can be ascertained without the ability to identify the addresses.
Both frames were used in the sample design and selection and therefore, the sample will differ from one frame to another. Also, the method of reaching the sample units by interviewers may differ.
In the survey, two variables were chosen to divide the population into strata, depending on the homogeneity of parts of the population.
Previous studies have shown that Palestinian households may be divided as follows:
1- Governorates: there are 16 governorates in the State of Palestine: 11 governorates in the West Bank and 5 in the Gaza Strip.
2- Locality Types: there are three types : urban, rural and refugee Camps.
After determining the sample size, which equals 15,355 households, we selected a probability sample - a multi-stage stratified cluster sample as follows:
1- First stage: selecting a sample of clusters (enumeration areas) using PPS without replacement method to obtain 644 enumeration areas from the total enumeration area frame.
2- Second stage: selecting 24 households from each selected enumeration area of the first stage and using the systematic sample method. When reaching households, all individuals were interviewed from the eligible groups i.e. women 15-54 years, elderly aged 60 years or above and children aged 0-4 years
3- Third stage: selecting one child of age group 2-14 years for part of the questionnaire and one young person from the 15-29 age group to answer the youth attachment in the questionnaireThe Kish table was used to select one child at random.
4- Also in the women's health section, the questionnaire was administered to a maximum of three randomly selected women aged 15-54 years irrespective of their marital status living in the households. In the case where 3 or less women aged 15-54 were listed in the HH all women were interviewed. As for Households with 4 or more women in this age group 3 were interviewed based on the availability of these women in the household at the time of the interview. The unselected women were further treated in the dataset as non-response cases. As for Households with 4 or more women in this age group 3 were interviewed based on the availability of these women in the household at the time of the interview. The unselected women were further treated in the dataset as non response cases.
5- The elderly age 60 years and above questionnaire was administered for all elderly persons within the household.
6- The Youth questionnaire was administered by randomly selecting a youth member from households with odd household numbers assigned at the enumeration area level. Within this sample female and male youth were alternatively selected.
The sample was allocated with proportionally using the design strata of the governorates and the locality type according to the proportion of the population in the 2007 Census.
The sampling procedures are more fully described in "Palestinian Family Survey 2010 - Final Report" pp.167-171.
Of the 15,355 households selected for the sample, 14,817 were found to be occupied. Of these, 13,629 were successfully interviewed achieving a household response rate of 92 percent.
In the interviewed households, 12,322 ever- married women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 12,005 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 90 percent within interviewed households.
In addition, 11,273 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 11,110 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of about 98.6 percent within interviewed households.
Overall response rates of 89.6 and 90.7 percent are calculated for the women’s and under-5’s interviews respectively.
Sampling weights are necessary to make the results of the sample are representative to the target population, and to adjust the bias resulting from differences between the sample characteristics and the reference population characteristics which mainly coming from the non-response and non-coverage of the frame.
The steps of calculation the design weight:
1- In the first stage: the weight of enumeration areas (PSUs) were calculated depending on the probability of each enumeration area((PPS) sample selection).
2- In the second stage: the weight of households were calculated in each enumeration area.
3- Design households weights resulted from product of weights of first stage and second stage.
4- Merging design households weights to the households file and to the household individuals file, each individual obtained the weight of his/her household weight ,and it is considered initial weight for individuals (all households members)
Adjustment of sample weights for non-response:
The weights of the households and individuals were adjusted to non-response cases, which are explained in the result of the interview, and we got the adjusted weights for non- response of the sample.
The adjustment factor for household non-response is equal to:
Fnr = sample of occupied households in stratum h /sample of interviewed households in stratum h
Similarly, the adjustment factor for non-response at the individual level (women and under-5 children) for each stratum is equal to:
Fnr = Eligible women (or under-5s) in stratum h /Completed women’s (or under-5’s) questionnaires in stratum h These factors were multiplied by the design weights to get the adjusted weights for non-response.
Weights Calibration (post-stratification):
This form of weighting adjustment compensates for differences between the achieved distribution for the sample for some characteristic and known population distribution for that characteristic (hlweight). The source of distributions are population counts from projections. Furthermore, the population in the control totals should match the population surveyed. For example, if a population was excluded from the survey due to age groups, the same population should be excluded from the projections. the post-stratification method of adjustment was used to compensate for non-coverage.
Standardization of weights:
Standardized weights obtained from dividing the weights of the sample unit by the average of the weights, so the weights were standardized in such way that the total weighted sample interviewed is equal to the total unweighted.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There is one supervisor for each of the 22 data collection teams in the field.
Data Collection Notes
Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 13 days in April 2010. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the topics covered in the questionnaires. Mock interviews were conducted between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. The data were collected by 22 teams; each having of 4 or 5 interviewers, one editor, one measurer and a supervisor. Fieldwork began in May 2010 and concluded in September 2010.
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics
The design of the survey complied with the standard specifications of health surveys previously implemented by PCBS. In addition, the survey included indicators of MICS4 to meet the needs of all partners.
Five sets of questionnaires were used in the survey, three are considered as main questionnaires and are based on MICS4 standard questionnaires,viz.: 1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect information on all de jure household members (usual residents), the household, and the dwelling; and a section on general health and knowledge of HIV and AIDS adminstered to three randomly selected women 15-54 years in each houehold, irrespective of marital status, 2) a women’s questionnaire administered in each household to all ever-married women aged 15-54 years (to allow for comparison with the previous survey, however, all the tables and analysis were undertaken for the women aged 15-49 only; 3) an under-5 questionnaire, administered to mothers or caretakers for all children under-5 years living in the household. The two additional country specific questionnaires were, 4) the youth aged 15-29 years old questionnaire; and 5) the elderly (60+ years old) questionnaire.
• Household Questionnaire: Covers demographic and educational characteristics, chronic disease, smoking, discipline of children (2-14 years), child labor (5-14 years), education of children (5-24 years) and housing characteristics.
• Women’s Health (15-54 years) Questionnaire: regardless of marital status, awareness about AIDS, anemia in women aged 15-49 years.
• Ever married women (15-54 years) Questionnaire: Covers general characteristics of eligible women, reproduction, child mortality, maternal care, reproductive morbidity, family planning, and attitudes towards reproduction.
• Children under age of 5 Questionnaire: Covers children’s health, vaccination against childhood diseases, early childhood development, chronic disease, and anemia.
• Youth (15-29 years) Questionnaire: Covers general characteristics, awareness and perception of family planning, health status, awareness about sexually transmitted diseases and reproduction.
• Elderly (60 years and over) Questionnaire: Covers general characteristics, social relations, activities, time-use, health status, and use of mass media.
The main three questionnaires (household, women and children under-5) are based on the MICS4 model questionnaires. Using the Arabic version of the MICS4 statndard questionnaires, the questionnaires were customized to the local context and were piloted in February 2010. Based on the results of the pilot, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires.
Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data were entered on 50 microcomputers and carried out by 50 data entry operators and one data entry supervisor. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS4 programme were adapted to the Palestinian Family Survey questionnaire and used throughout. The implementation of all processes was supervised by the technical director of the project. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in June 2010 and was completed in December 2011. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 19, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this Annex for each of the selected indicators:
• Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
• Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
• Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
• Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 19 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator.
Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. One of the selected indicators is based on households, 8 are based on household members, 16 are based on women, and 18 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions.
A series of data quality tables are available to review the quality of the data and include the following:
- Age distribution of the household population
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires
- Women’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households
- Completeness of reporting
- Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators
- Heaping in anthropometric measurements
- Observation of under-5s birth certificates
- Observation of vaccination cards
- Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire
- School attendance by single age
- Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
The results of each of these data quality tables are shown in appendix D in document "Palestinian Family Survey 2010 - Final Report" pp.186-201.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download.
United Nations Children’s Fund, Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics. Palestinian Family Survey (MICS) 2010, Ref. WBG_WBG_2010_MICS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.