Post-Distribution Monitoring of Cash-Based Intervention, January 2021
THE CBI PDM Household Survey was conducted in Malaysia between December, to January, 2021. In Malaysia, refugees live in a very challenging environment with limited rights to health, education and work. As the Malaysian government does not provide refugees with any monetary support, refugees depend on low-income work to provide for their families and for themselves. As there are approximately 150,000 refugees in Malaysia, the CBI program is targeted to the most vulnerable groups, with a household income below the national poverty line, women and girls at risk, children and adolescents at risk and persons with serious medical conditions. Assistance to refugees who have been detained and have not managed to earn sufficient funds during their sentence is also provided.
UNHCR uses Post-Distribution Monitoring (PDM) as a mechanism to collect refugees' feedback on the quality, sufficiency, utilization and effectiveness of the assistance items they receive. The underlying principle behind the process is linked to accountability, as well as a commitment to improve the quality and relevance of support provided, and related services. UNHCR increasingly uses Cash-Based Interventions (CBIs) as a preferred modality for delivering assistance, offering greater dignity and choice to forcibly displaced and stateless persons in line with UNHCR's core protection mandate. In order to ensure that the cash assistance provided meets the intended programme objectives and that desired outcomes are achieved, UNHCR conducts regular post-distribution and outcome monitoring with a sample or all of refugee recipients.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v2.1: Edited, anonymous dataset for licensed distribution.
The household survey covers the following sections:
1. Household demographics
2. Receiving and spending the cash assistance (basic facts)
3. Risks and problems: Did people face problems with the CBI? Did the CBI put POCs at additional risk?
4. Markets and prices: Can POCs find what they need, and at a price they can afford, in the markets?
5. Expenditure: What did people spend the money on?
6. Outcomes: What changes is the cash assistance contributing to in POC households?
7. Longer-Term Outcomes: Has the cash assistance helped put POC on the pathway to sustainable solutions?
8. Accountability to Affected Persons: Is the CBI intervention accountable to persons of concern? (What preferences do people have over how assistance is delivered?)
Livelihood & Social cohesion
Domestic Needs/Household Support
The survey is conducted in Kuala Lumpur, Pahang, Penang and Selangor.
The total population spans all beneficiaries subject to the last two Cash-Based Intervention in 2020 in Malaysia.
Producers and sponsors
The survey's objective was to deliver data of all refugee households that were beneficiaries of the last two rounds of cash-based interventions implemented in 2020. The total number of households that received cash-based interventions in that period was 149 and all recipients were asked to answer the survey.
Out of the 149 households, 131 answered and gave their consent to participate in the survey.
No sample weights were calculated, because all recipients were surveyed.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Telephone Interview [cati]
UNHCR (2021). Malaysia: Post-Distribution Monitoring of Cash-Based Intervention, January 2021. Accessed from: https://microdata.unhcr.org.